Aykut Başer1*, Atakan Yilmaz2, Hülya Yilmaz Başer3, Yusuf Özlülerden2, Ali Ersin Zümrütbaş2

1Department of Urology, Hitit University School of Medicine,
2Department of Urology, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey,
3Department of Emergency Medicine, Hitit University Erol Olcak Education and Research Hospital, Corum

Keywords: Emergency department, empirical antibiotherapy, urinary tract infection


OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine the factors that would lead the doctors in EDs to a more the accurate diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) and the correct initiation of empirical antibiotherapy in the emergency room and reduce the use of unnecessary antibiotherapy.

METHODS: This study is a prospective observational study from a single-center, investigating patients with an age of 18 years and older who presented to the emergency department (ED) with the symptoms of UTI between January and May 2018. The guiding parameters to establish a UTI diagnosis and start an empirical antibiotherapy were investigated between the negative (Group 1) and positive (>103 colonies) (Group 2) groups, as a result of urine culture in terms of urine culture.

RESULTS: Our study included a total of 108 patients (59 women and 49 men). The average age was 47.11 ± 14.97. Age and gender were similar among the groups and not a discriminating factor in the diagnosis of UTI. High Charlson Comorbidity Index score, history of chronic kidney failure and cerebrovascular disease, leukocyte esterase, nitrite positivity, and leukocyte cluster presence were higher in Group 2. We suggest that these parameters might be predictive values to detect bacterial growth in urine culture. Empirical antibiotherapy was started in 48.4% of the patients in Group 1 and 95.7% of the patients in Group 2.

CONCLUSIONS: In EDs, admission complaints of the patients and physical examination findings do not always result in the diagnosis of UTI. Our study showed that UTI diagnosis could be made more accurately using leukocyte esterase, nitrite positivity, the presence of leukocyte clusters, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index score. We also suggest that regional antibiotic resistance should be considered before starting empirical antibiotherapy.

Ethics Committee Approval

Pamukkale University noninvasive clinical research ethics committee approval number is 60116787-020/2646, date: 12/01/2016.

Author Contributions

AB: Conception and Design, Supervision, Data Collection and/or Processing, Analysis and/or Interpretation, Literature Review, Writer, Critical Review. AY: Conception and Design, Materials, Data Collection and/or Processing, Analysis and/or Interpretation, Literature Review, Critical Review. HYB: Materials, Data Collection and/or Processing, Literature Review. YÖ: Analysis and/or Interpretation, Literature Review. AEZ: Supervision, Critical Review.

Conflict of Interest

None declared.

Financial Disclosure

None declared.